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Thrush, skin, mycosis skin, nails, paronychia candida, erythema, seborrheic dermatitis, candida albicans, diaper dermatitis


Thrush may refer to:


Thrush (bird), any of the many birds in the Turdidae (thrush) family
Antthrush, any of a group of birds within the Formicariidae family
Dohrn's Thrush-babbler ( Horizorhinus dohrni ), a species of bird in the Timalidae family
Laughingthrush, any of the birds in the Garrulax genus, in the Timalidae family
Quail-thrush, any of the three birds in the Cinclosoma genus, in the Cinclosomatidae family
Palm-thrush, one of several birds in the Cichladusa genus in the Muscapidae family
Rock-thrush, any of the birds in the Monticola genus in the Muscapidae family
Rosy Thrush-tanager ( Rhodinocichla rosea ), a species of bird in the Thraupidae family
Shrike-thrush, any of the birds in the Colluricinclidae family
Thrush Babbler ( Ptyrticus turdinus ), a species of bird in the Timaliidae family
Thrush-like Antpitta ( Myrmothera campanisona ), a species of bird in the Formicariidae family
Thrush-like Schiffornis ( Schiffornis turdina ), a species of bird in the Tityridae family
Thrush-like Woodcreeper or Plain-winged Woodcreeper ( Dendrocincla turdina ), a species of bird in the Furnariidae family
Thrush-like Wren ( Campylorhynchus turdinus ), a species of bird in the Troglodytidae family
Thrush Nightingale ( Luscinia luscinia ), a species of bird in the Muscapidae family
Waterthrush, either of two New World warblers in the Parulidae family


Jeremy Thrush, New Zealand rugby player
Peter Dengate Thrush (born 1956), New Zealand barrister


Candidiasis or thrush, a fungal infection of the mucous membranes
Thrush (horse), a bacterial infection of the sole of a horse's hoof

Film and television

THRUSH, fictional criminal organization in The Man from U.N.C.L.E.


Thrush Green, a fictional village in the works of Miss Read
Thrush, a play by Caridad Svich
The Darkling Thrush, a poem by Thomas Hardy
The Thrush's Nest, a poem by John Clare
To a Thrush, a poem by William Wright (poet)


Hermit Thrush (band), an American folk/jam band
Mistle Thrush (band), an alternative rock band based in Boston, Massachusetts
Thrush, a track on Vein (Foetus album), an album by Foetus
Thrush Hermit, a Canadian alternative rock band active in the 1990s
Thrush (punk band), a UK Scum Punk band formed in 2006
, a King Crimson album
Tiger Thrush, an album by Japanese vocalist Ami Yoshida


Ayres Thrush, an agricultural aircraft
Blackburne Thrush, an early engine for light aircraft
Curtiss Thrush, an early single-engined airliner, the basis for the twin-engined Curtiss Kingbird
, three ships of the British Royal Navy
Thrush Aircraft, a US aircraft manufacturer
Thrush, a brand of automotive exhaust mufflers (silencers) made by Tenneco corporation
, two ships of the United States Navy


Thrush, an informal term for a female singer
Thrush or Drozd, a military missile system developed in the Soviet Union


The skin is a soft outer covering of an animal, in particular a vertebrate. Other animal coverings such the arthropod exoskeleton or the seashell have different developmental origin, structure and chemical composition. The adjective cutaneous literally means of the skin (from Latin cutis, skin). In mammals, the skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue, and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Skin of a different nature exists in amphibians, reptiles, birds. All mammals have some hair on their skin, even marine mammals which appear to be hairless.
Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays a key role in protecting (the body) against pathogens Its other functions are insulation, temperature regulation, sensation, and the protection of vitamin B folates. Severely damaged skin will try to heal by forming scar tissue. This is often discolored and depigmented.

Hair with sufficient density is called fur. The fur mainly serves to augment the insulation the skin provides, but can also serve as a secondary sexual characteristic or as camouflage. On some animals, the skin is very hard and thick, and can be processed to create leather. Reptiles and fish have hard protective scales on their skin for protection, and birds have hard feathers, all made of tough β-keratins. Amphibian skin is not a strong barrier to passage of chemicals and is often subject to osmosis. A frog sitting in an anesthetic solution could quickly go to sleep.


Skin performs the following functions:

#Protection: an anatomical barrier from pathogens and damage between the internal and external environment in bodily defense; Langerhans cells in the skin are part of the adaptive immune system.
# Sensation: contains a variety of nerve endings that react to heat and cold, touch, pressure, vibration, and tissue injury; see somatosensory system and haptics.
#Heat regulation: the skin contains a blood supply far greater than its requirements which allows precise control of energy loss by radiation, convection and conduction. Dilated blood vessels increase perfusion and heatloss, while constricted vessels greatly reduce cutaneous blood flow and conserve heat. Erector pili muscles are significant in animals.
#Control of evaporation: the skin provides a relatively dry and semi-impermeable barrier to fluid loss.
#Storage and synthesis: acts as a storage center for lipids and water
#Absorption: Oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide can diffuse into the epidermis in small amounts, some animals using their skin for their sole respiration organ (contrary to popular belief, however, humans do not absorb oxygen through the skin).
#Water resistance: The skin acts as a water resistant barrier so essential nutrients aren't washed out of the body.

Animal skin products

The term skin refers to the covering of a small animal, such as a sheep, goat (goatskin), pig, snake (snakeskin) etc or the young of a large animal.

The term hides or rawhide refers to the covering of a large adult animal such as a cow, buffalo, horse etc.

Skins and hides from different animals are used for clothing, bags and other consumer products, usually in the form of leather, but also furs.

Skin can also be cooked to make pork rind or cracklin. The skin on roasted chicken and turkey is another coveted delicacy

==Mammalian skin layers==

Mammalian skin is composed of three primary layers:
the epidermis, which provides waterproofing and serves as a barrier to infection;
the dermis, which serves as a location for the appendages of skin; and
the hypodermis (subcutaneous adipose layer) .


Epidermis, epi coming from the Greek meaning over or upon, is the outermost layer of the skin. It forms the waterproof, protective wrap over the body's surface and is made up of stratified squamous epithelium with an underlying basal lamina.

The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and cells in the deepest layers are nourished by diffusion from blood capillaries extending to the upper layers of the dermis. The main type of cells which make up the epidermis are Merkel cells, keratinocytes, with melanocytes and Langerhans cells also present. The epidermis can be further subdivided into the following strata (beginning with the outermost layer): corneum, lucidum (only in palms of hands and bottoms of feet), granulosum, spinosum, basale. Cells are formed through mitosis at the basale layer. The daughter cells (see cell division) move up the strata changing shape and composition as they die due to isolation from their blood source. The cytoplasm is released and the protein keratin is inserted. They eventually reach the corneum and slough off (desquamation). This process is called keratinization and takes place within about 27 days. This keratinized layer of skin is responsible for keeping water in the body and keeping other harmful chemicals and pathogens out, making skin a natural barrier to infection.

Image:HautFingerspitzeOCT nonanimated.gif 
of fingertip, depicting stratum corneum (~500 µm thick) with stratum disjunctum on top and stratum lucidum (connection to stratum spinosum) in the middle. At the bottom superficial parts of the dermis. Sweatducts are clearly visible.


The epidermis contains no blood vessels, and is nourished by diffusion from the dermis. The main type of cells which make up the epidermis are keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans cells and Merkels cells. The epidermis helps the skin to regulate body temperature.


Epidermis is divided into several layers where cells are formed through mitosis at the innermost layers. They move up the strata changing shape and composition as they differentiate and become filled with keratin. They eventually reach the top layer called stratum corneum and are sloughed off, or desquamated. This process is called keratinization and takes place within weeks. The outermost layer of the epidermis consists of 25 to 30 layers of dead cells.


Epidermis is divided into the following 5 sublayers or strata:

Stratum corneum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum spinosum
Stratum germinativum (also called stratum basale )

Blood capillaries are found beneath the epidermis, and are linked to an arteriole and a venule. Arterial shunt vessels may bypass the network in ears, the nose and fingertips.


The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain. The dermis is tightly connected to the epidermis by a basement membrane. It also harbors many Mechanoreceptors (nerve endings) that provide the sense of touch and heat. It contains the hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, apocrine glands, lymphatic vessels and blood vessels. The blood vessels in the dermis provide nourishment and waste removal from its own cells as well as from the Stratum basale of the epidermis.

The dermis is structurally divided into two areas: a superficial area adjacent to the epidermis, called the papillary region, and a deep thicker area known as the reticular region .

Papillary region

The papillary region is composed of loose areolar connective tissue. This is named for its fingerlike projections called papillae, that extend toward the epidermis. The papillae provide the dermis with a bumpy surface that interdigitates with the epidermis, strengthening the connection between the two layers of skin.

Reticular region

The reticular region lies deep in the papillary region and is usually much thicker. It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue, and receives its name from the dense concentration of collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibres that weave throughout it. These protein fibres give the dermis its properties of strength, extensibility, and elasticity.
Also located within the reticular region are the roots of the hair, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, receptors, nails, and blood vessels.


The hypodermis is not part of the skin, and lies below the dermis. Its purpose is to attach the skin to underlying bone and muscle as well as supplying it with blood vessels and nerves. It consists of loose connective tissue and elastin. The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and adipocytes (the hypodermis contains 50% of body fat). Fat serves as padding and insulation for the body. Another name for the hypodermis is the subcutaneous tissue.

Microorganisms like Staphylococcus epidermidis colonize the skin surface. The density of skin flora depends on region of the skin. The disinfected skin surface gets recolonized from bacteria residing in the deeper areas of the hair follicle, gut and urogenital openings.

In fish and amphibians

The epidermis of fish and of most amphibians consists entirely of live cells, with only minimal quantities of keratin in the cells of the superficial layer. It is generally permeable, and, in the case of many amphibians, may actually be a major respiratory organ. The dermis of bony fish typically contains relatively little of the connective tissue found in tetrapods. Instead, in most species, it is largely replaced by solid, protective bony scales. Apart from some particularly large dermal bones that form parts of the skull, these scales are lost in tetrapods, although many reptiles do have scales of a different kind, as do pangolins. Cartilaginous fish have numerous tooth-like denticles embedded in their skin, in place of true scales.

Sweat glands and sebaceous glands are both unique to mammals, but other types of skin gland are found in other vertebrates. Fish typically have a numerous individual mucus-secreting skin cells that aid in insulation and protection, but may also have poison glands, photophores, or cells that produce a more watery, serous fluid. In amphibians, the mucus cells are gathered together to form sac-like glands. Most living amphibians also possess granular glands in the skin, that secrete irritating or toxic compounds.

Although melanin is found in the skin of many species, in reptiles, amphibians, and fish, the epidermis is often relatively colourless. Instead, the colour of the skin is largely due to chromatophores in the dermis, which, in addition to melanin, may contain guanine or carotenoid pigments. Many species, such as chameleons and flounders may be able to change the colour of their skin by adjusting the relative size of their chromatophores.

In birds and reptiles

The epidermis of birds and reptiles is closer to that of mammals, with a layer of dead keratin-filled cells at the surface, to help reduce water loss. A similar pattern is also seen in some of the more terrestrial amphibians, such as toads. However, in all of these animals there is no clear differentiation of the epidermis into distinct layers, as occurs in humans, with the change in cell type being relatively gradual. The mammalian epidermis always possesses at least a stratum germinativum and stratum corneum, but the other intermediate layers found in humans are not always distinguishable.
Hair is a distinctive feature of mammalian skin, while feathers are (at least among living species) similarly unique to birds.

Birds and reptiles have relatively few skin glands, although there may be a few structures for specific purposes, such as pheromone-secreting cells in some reptiles, or the uropygial gland of most birds.

See also

List of cutaneous conditions
Acid mantle
Callus - thick area of skin
Cutaneous structure development
Hair - including hair follicles in skin
Meissner's corpuscle
Pacinian corpuscle
Superficial fascia





Erythema is redness of the skin, caused by hyperemia of the capillaries in the lower layers of the skin. It occurs with any skin injury, infection, or inflammation.


Erythema disappears on finger pressure (blanching), while purpura or bleeding in the skin and pigmentation do not. There is no temperature elevation in erythema, unless erythema is not associated in the dilatation of arteries in the deeper layer of the skin.


It can be caused by infection, massage, electrical treatment, acne medication, allergies, exercise, solar radiation (sunburn), cutaneous radiation syndrome, or waxing and plucking of the hairs—any of which can cause the capillaries to dilate, resulting in redness. Erythema is a common side effect of radiotherapy treatment due to patient exposure to ionizing radiation.

In about 30–50% of cases, the cause of erythema is unknown.

Circumoral erythema has been described as a typical sign of acute oleander poisoning by ingestion.

Associated conditions

Erythema ab igne
Erythema chronicum migrans
Erythema induratum
Erythema infectiosum (or fifth disease)
Erythema marginatum
Erythema migrans
Erythema multiforme (EM)
Erythema nodosum
Erythema toxicum
Keratolytic winter erythema
Palmar erythema

See also

Flushing (physiology)


External links



Candida albicans is a diploid fungus (a form of yeast) and a causal agent of opportunistic oral and genital infections in humans. Systemic fungal infections (fungemias) have emerged as important causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients (e.g., AIDS, cancer chemotherapy, organ or bone marrow transplantation). In addition, hospital-related infections in patients not previously considered at risk (e.g., patients in an intensive care unit) have become a cause of major health concern.

C. albicans is commensal and is among the gut flora, the many organisms that live in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. Under normal circumstances, C. albicans lives in 80% of the human population with no harmful effects, although overgrowth results in candidiasis. Candidiasis is often observed in immunocompromised individuals such as HIV-positive patients. Candidiasis also may occur in the blood and in the genital tract. Candidiasis, also known as thrush, is a common condition, usually easily cured in people who are not immunocompromised. To infect host tissue, the usual unicellular yeast-like form of C. albicans reacts to environmental cues and switches into an invasive, multicellular filamentous forms.


One of the most interesting features of the C. albicans genome is the occurrence of numeric and structural chromosomal rearrangements as means of generating genetic diversity, named chromosome length polymorphisms (contraction/expansion of repeats), reciprocal translocations, chromosome deletions and trisomy of individual chromosomes. These karyotypic alterations lead to changes in the phenotype, which is an adaptation strategy of this fungus. These mechanisms will be better understood with the complete analysis of the C. albicans genome.

The C. albicans genome for strain SC5314 was sequenced at the Stanford DNA Sequencing and Technology Center. The genome of the WO1 strain was sequenced by the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. The C. albicans genome sequencing effort was launched in October 1996. Successive releases of the sequencing data and genome assemblies have occurred in the last 10 years, culminating in the release of the diploid assembly 19, which provided a haploid version of the genome along with data on allelic regions in the genome. A refined assembly 20 with the eight assembled C. albicans chromosomes was released in the summer of 2006. Importantly, the availability of sequencing data prior to the completion of the genome sequence has made it possible to start C. albicans post-genomics early on. In this regard, genome databases have been made available to the research community providing different forms of genome annotation. These have been merged in a community-based annotation hosted by the Candida Genome Database . The availability of the genome sequence has paved the way for the implementation of post-genomic approaches to the study of C. albicans : macroarrays and then microarrays have been developed and used to study the C. albicans transcriptome; proteomics has also been developed and complements transcriptional analyses; furthermore, systematic approaches are becoming available to study the contribution of each C. albicans gene in different contexts. Other Candida genome sequences have been, or are being, determined: C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, C. lusitaniae, and C. tropicalis . These species will soon enter the post-genomic era as well and provide interesting comparative data. The genome sequences obtained for the different Candida species along with those of non-pathogenic hemiascomycetes provide a wealth of knowledge on the evolutionary processes that shaped the hemiascomycete group, as well as those that may have contributed to the success of different Candida species as pathogens.

The genome of C. albicans is highly dynamic, and this variability has been used advantageously for molecular epidemiological studies of C. albicans and population studies in this species. A remarkable discovery arose from the genome sequence in identifying the presence of a parasexual cycle (no meiotic division) in C. albicans . This parasexual cycle is under the control of mating-type loci and switching between white and opaque phenotypes. Investigating the role the mating process plays in the dynamics of the C. albicans population or in other aspects of C. albicans biology and pathogenicity will undoubtedly represent an important focus for future research.


In a process that superficially resembles dimorphism, C. albicans undergoes a process called phenotypic switching, in which different cellular morphologies are generated spontaneously. One of the classically studied strains that undergoes phenotypic switching is WO-1, which consists of two phases: one that grows as round cells in smooth white colonies and one that is rod-like and grows as flat gray colonies. The other strain known to undergo switching is 3153A; this strain produces at least seven different colony morphologies. In both the WO-1 and 3153A strains, the different phases convert spontaneously to the other(s) at a low frequency. The switching is reversible, and colony type can be inherited from one generation to another. While several genes that are expressed differently in different colony morphologies have been identified, some recent efforts focus on what might control these changes. Further, whether there is a potential molecular link between dimorphism and phenotypic switching is a tantalizing question.

In the 3153A strain, a gene called SIR2 (for silent information regulator) has been found that seems to be important for phenotypic switching. SIR2 was originally found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (brewer's yeast), where it is involved in chromosomal silencing—a form of transcriptional regulation, in which regions of the genome are reversibly inactivated by changes in chromatin structure (chromatin is the complex of DNA and proteins that make chromosomes). In yeast, genes involved in the control of mating type are found in these silent regions, and SIR2 represses their expression by maintaining a silent-competent chromatin structure in this region. The discovery of a C. albicans SIR2 implicated in phenotypic switching suggests it too has silent regions controlled by SIR2, in which the phenotype-specific genes may reside.

Another potential regulatory molecule is Efg1p, a transcription factor found in the WO-1 strain that regulates dimorphism, and more recently has been suggested to help regulate phenotypic switching. Efg1p is expressed only in the white and not in the gray cell-type, and overexpression of Efg1p in the gray form causes a rapid conversion to the white form.

So far, very few data say that dimorphism and phenotypic switching use common molecular components. However, it is not inconceivable that phenotypic switching may occur in response to some change in the environment as well as being a spontaneous event. How SIR2 itself is regulated in S. cerevisiae may yet provide clues as to the switching mechanisms of C. albicans .


The heterozygosity of the Candida genome exceeds that found in other genomes and is widespread among clinical isolates. Non-synonymous single base polymorphisms result in two proteins that differ in one or several amino acids that may confer functional differences for each protein. This situation considerably increases the number of different proteins encoded by the genome.

See also

Torula yeast ( Candida utilis )
Undecylenic acid (Castor oil derivative) for candida fungus infections.
Leaky gut syndrome for damage to the bowel or gut (increased permeability to gut wall or bowel lining).


Further reading

External links

Candida Genome Database
U.S. National Institutes of Health on the Candida albicans genome



Diaper rash

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Thrush, skin, mycosis skin, nails, paronychia candida, erythema, seborrheic dermatitis, candida albicans, diaper dermatitis
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